Antioxidants are chemicals that interact with and help neutralize free radicals. It may help prevent the development of some chronic diseases such as cancer. Some antioxidants such as glutathione are made by the body, while others such as vitamins E and C and the mineral selenium must be consumed in the diet.


In nutrition, the process of moving protein, carbohydrates, fats, and other nutrients from the digestive system into the bloodstream. Most absorption occurs in the small intestine


Age-related macular degeneration is an eye disease that results in a loss of central, “straight-ahead” vision.


Nutrient bioavailability is the proportion of a nutrient that is absorbed from the diet and or supplement that is used by the body for a specific biochemical or physiological function. Bioavailability captures three essential features. 1. How fast the nutrient enters the systemic circulation (rate of absorption). 2. How much of nutrient the body is actually able to utilize (extent of absorption) 3. How long it is available in the plasma and cells to be utilized Consuming a supplement which isn’t optimized in terms of bioavailability like tablets and capsules, can lead to a significant loss in the amount of nutrient especially when it bypasses the digestive system. And you are not reaping the health benefits you seek. Powdered supplements don’t have a barrier, other than the mouth. So when you add water, consume as a liquid, you spare the stomach the task of breaking everything down and the body begins absorbing it right away leading to faster benefits.


Bioactives are naturally occurring components that are known to affect and modulate a wide range of enzymatic routes, contributing significantly to health when they are consumed throughout life as part of the daily diet.

Biological Activity

An effect on life processes. For example, the biological activity of a vitamin means the effect it has on specific life processes in the body.


Having to do with plants or plant parts, or dietary supplement products made from plants.

Clinical Trial

A type of research study that uses volunteers to test the safety and efficacy (the ability to produce a beneficial effect) of new methods of screening (checking for disease when there are no symptoms), prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of a disease. Also called a clinical study.

Common Cold

A nose and throat infection caused by a virus. Symptoms include runny nose, sneezing, congestion, sore throat, and cough.

Control Group

In a research study or clinical trial, the group that does not receive the new treatment being studied. This group is compared with the group that receives the new treatment, to see whether the new treatment works.

Dietary Supplement

A product that is intended to supplement the diet. A dietary supplement contains one or more dietary ingredients (including vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, and other substances) or their components; is intended to be taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid; and is identified on the front label of the product as being a dietary supplement.


Describes a clinical trial in which neither the researcher nor the patient knows which of several possible therapies the patient is receiving.


A group of plant compounds which are thought to provide various health benefits. They are found naturally in plants, fruits and vegetables and contain many important antioxidants. Flavonoids provide antioxidants and help support skin and immune health.

Free Radical

Free radicals are an atom or molecule with at least one unpaired electron, making it unstable and reactive highly reactive chemicals that, when found in high amounts in the body can damage important components of the cell.

Functional Food

A conventional or modified food or ingredient that provides a health benefit in addition to the basic nutritional functions of the food like whole, fortified, enriched, and enhanced foods.


The name of a category that is part of the scientific classification of all organisms. Genus is located in the classification system after kingdom, phylum, class, order, and family and before the subclassification of species. Humans, for example, belong to the genus Homo and the species Homo sapiens.

Immune Function

Substances made and action taken by cells that fight disease and infection in the body.

Immune System

A group of organs and cells that defends the body against infection, disease, and altered (mutated) cells. It includes the thymus, spleen, lymphatic system (lymph nodes and lymph vessels), bone marrow, tonsils, and white blood cells.


The condition of being protected against or resistant to an infectious disease.

In Vitro

In the laboratory (outside the body).

In Vivo

In the body.

Inactive Ingredient

A substance that has no medicinal effect on the body. Uses of small amounts of inactive ingredients in dietary supplements include holding the tablet together, improving the taste or smell, and increasing the stability of the key ingredient.


Redness, swelling, pain, and/or a feeling of heat in an area of the body. It is a protective reaction to injury, disease, or irritation of tissues.


In a dietary supplement, an ingredient is a component of the product, such as the main nutrient (vitamin, mineral, herb, amino acid, or enzyme) or any binder, color, filler flavor, or sweetener.


Short for International Units, IU is a unit of activity or potency of a particular substance. It doesn’t measure the amount but rather the functionality of a substance. This measurement is used for fat soluble vitamins, certain hormones and enzymes.


A type of white blood cell that is part of the immune system. It defends the body against infection, disease, and altered (mutated) cells.


A type of white blood cell that surrounds and kills microorganisms, removes dead cells, and stimulates the action of other immune system cells.

Mechanism of Action

The means by which a substance (such as a dietary supplement) is able to produce an effect in the body.


Micronutrients are nutrients that your body may need in very small doses. Ingredients often found in supplements as micronutrients include zinc, selenium and chromium.


This is a general term that refers to the kinds of compounds your body may need in larger amounts, such as proteins, carbohydrates and fats.

MCG (micrograms)

One millionth of a gram; 1000 micrograms is equal to 1 milligram

MG (milligram)

One thousandth of a gram; 1000 milligrams is equal to 1 gram


A type of white blood cell.


A chemical compound in food that is used by the body to function and maintain health. Examples of nutrients include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals.


Compounds found in fruits, vegetables, and other plants that can be health-protecting.

Peer-Reviewed Journal

A scholarly or scientific publication in which an article is reviewed by a board of experts before it is published. The board members determine the accuracy of the article and approve or reject it.


An inactive substance or treatment that has no effect on the body and that ideally looks, smells, and tastes the same as, and is given the same way as, the active drug or treatment being tested. The effects of the active substance or treatment are compared to the effects of the placebo.


Chemicals found in plants that have antioxidant properties and can support overall health. Polyphenols can be found in food sources such as apples, berries, cherries, dark chocolate, onions and green tea. Polyphenols can protect cells from free radical damage.


A substance found in some foods that the body can use to make a vitamin. An example of a provitamin is beta-carotene, which the body uses to make vitamin A. Also called a vitamin precursor.

Quality of life

The overall enjoyment of life, a sense of well-being, and the ability to carry out routine activities.

Randomized Clinical Trial

A study in which the participants are assigned by chance to separate groups that compare different treatments. Neither the researchers nor participants can choose which group participants are assigned to. Using chance to assign people means that the groups will be similar and the treatments they receive can be compared objectively.

Respiratory Tract

The organs that are involved in breathing. These include the mouth, nose, throat (pharynx), voicebox (larynx), windpipe (trachea), air passages between the windpipe and lungs (bronchial tubes), and lungs. Also called the respiratory system.


Recommended Dietary Allowance is a dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of most people.

Scientific Study

A method of gaining knowledge by making observations, proposing educated guesses (hypotheses) to explain the observations, and testing the hypotheses in ways that have reproducible results.


The name of a category that is part of the scientific classification of all organisms. The category species is located in the classification system after kingdom, phylum, class, order, family and genus. Humans, for example, belong to the genus Homo and the species Homo sapiens.

Standardised Extracts

Herbs are made up of active and inactive compounds. The medicinal parts of an herb, the parts that provide benefit to the body, are the active compounds. The amount of active ingredients in the herb is controlled to a very tight tolerance, ensuring that each dose, each bottle, and each batch is consistent, from one to the next.

U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP)

A nonprofit authority that sets standards and certifies supplements that meet certain quality, strength, and purity standards, some of which are called the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). Many supplements carry the USP symbol on their label.


The state of feeling healthy, happy, and content. Well-being is affected by things such as physical and mental health, income, education, social support, attitude, values, stress, security, and other qualities of life.

White Blood Cell

WBC. A cell made by the bone marrow that helps the body fight infection and disease. WBCs include lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages, and mast cells.